The recent announcement by Minister of Finance Pravin Gordhan on the 22nd February 2012 in which he confirmed the Government’s intention to implement a Carbon Tax in South Africa has opened the door to many a heated debate about topics that include the viability of implementing this tax, what it will do to industry in this country, what the carbon footprint baseline year is that will be used to calculate the tax, how much the final cost of each tonne of CO2 will be and whether the tax will in fact bear fruit – or ‘add any real value to South Africa’s stated goals of reducing its anticipated carbon footprint by 34% by 2030’.

In these debates all manner of large and small consulting firms and industry mouth pieces or –‘soothsayers’ have given us their interpretation of the Carbon Tax and its negative or positive impacts. If we look at global developments and track the slow, but steady implementation of carbon legislation around the world it becomes clear that it’s not a matter of “if” there will be a carbon tax but rather “when” it will come into force and how onerous it will be on the economy and businesses’ internal resources.

As the debate rages on we were wondering about the positive impacts that this new carbon tax legislation would have on the job market in South Africa for qualified Carbon Footprint Assessors. This new breed of professionals will be needed to assess company carbon emissions baselines and help these companies to meet their legal obligations.  It is as yet unclear how many companies will be asked to be part of the mandatory reporting on greenhouse gas emissions but indications can be taken from countries like the UK and Australia.

The Australian Carbon Tax came into effect on the 1st July 2012 and under this legislation around 300 businesses will pay a fixed price of $AUD23/tonne for carbon emissions until 2015, when the market will set the price.

On the 20th June 2012 the U.K. government confirmed that it will introduce mandatory carbon reporting rules requiring around 1,800 of the countries largest listed companies to report their greenhouse gas emissions annually.

If we use these two examples to guide us then South Africans can expect a significant number of the largest organisations in the country to fall within the mandatory reporting net which was first mentioned in the White Paper on the National Climate Change Response published in 2011. In this document it was said that any company with a carbon footprint of 100,000 tonnes of CO2 or more would be required to report on their emissions. By our estimate this would include anywhere from 200 – 350 companies within South Africa and judging from the aggressive expansion of the UK carbon tax we could expect this to grow substantially.

This leaves us with a dilemma? Are there enough experienced Carbon Footprint Assessors in South Africa to provide the level of service that will be required? The unanimous answer to this question is an emphatic no. Luckily the actual process of conducting a carbon footprint is not a difficult one, so upskilling people within your company to play this role is feasible. That said there is no substitute for experience so it will be important to begin the process of upskilling now so that by the time the mandatory reporting requirements come into effect you have a team of experts who can handle this exercise competently. You also have the option to have your footprint independently verified by an expert firm to ensure it is accurate. Verification would have take place in accordance with international best practice by utilising standards such as the ISO 14064-3:2006 as outlined in ISO 14065:2007 for carbon footprint verification.

In summary it’s clear that Carbon Taxation Legislation is on its way and it’s also clear that South Africa today does not have enough experienced Carbon Footprint Assessors to handle the scope of work that will be required. This gap in the job market presents a fantastic opportunity for upskillers and job seekers who are looking to make a career in this new and exciting service offering. Whether you intend to use this skill as a way to differentiate yourself in your new job or to create your own consultancy it is quite clear that the need for your services are not likely to dry up any time soon.

Many of us are passionate about the environment and want to work in an area that fuels this passion. However man cannot live on passion alone and the team at Terra Firma Academy is often asked by new students “how much can I earn as a Carbon Footprint Assessor once I have completed the Terra Firma Academy Carbon Footprint Analyst course. Learners asking this question come from different countries so we felt it was our responsibility to research this answer using feedback from past students and others that are working in the industry.

Through our web based questionnaires the Terra Firma Academy team has interviewed Carbon Footprint Analysts in 4 countries (UK, USA, Australia and South Africa) and the results are summarized below. We found that of all 48 people interviewed at differing levels of experience the average global salary earned in 2011 was R364,000 per year. Experience varied from less than 1 year to 5 years or more across the target group but the average experience in numbers of years was just over 3 years in carbon foot-printing.

In conclusion we found that the salary level of carbon footprint assessors was highly dependent on the level of experience that the candidate had and also whether or not they could conduct multinational carbon footprint assessments. Those assessors that had multinational experience were paid considerably more than others who focused on localized companies. We also found that starting salaries differed quite substantially across the responding countries. Notably the UK and USA candidates had far higher starting salaries. We believe that this is driven by the demand for this type of skill set due to advanced carbon tax legislation or cap and trade systems in place in these countries. Of all the assessors interviewed we found that those that had other analytical skills in finance or environmental assessment consistently earned more than those that did not.

As the level of experience increased we found that salaries across the different countries tended to become more equal. We feel that the reason for this is the global applicability of this skill set that experience carbon footprint assessors had. Anyone with 5 or more years experience and with multinational carbon foot printing experience was considered a very valuable resource and their salary grew exponentially to their years of experience. Another important factor was whether the person had additional qualifications that could complement their role. We found that people interviewed, that had other sustainability, financial or software related (power user) experience tended to earn more than those that only had specific carbon related experience.

Terra Firma Academy is a green career training provider offering a range of environmentally educational courses that will help you and your company excel in the green era. The Academy runs a instructor led Carbon Footprint Analyst course. This course teaches learners how to conduct a carbon footprint assessment in accordance with Global Best Practice which includes the Greenhouse Gas Protocol and ISO 14064 with a focus on clearly explaining each step required when conducting a world-class carbon footprint for an organisation.

One month ago Finance Minister, Pravin Gordhan confirmed that a carbon tax will be phased in from January 1, 2015. This is part of South Africa’s efforts to encourage energy efficiency measures and mitigate the effects of climate change. According to the Treasury: “By pricing the external costs associated with carbon dioxide emissions, incentives will be created to change behavior and encourage energy efficiency measures.”

The plan is to price carbon at the rate of R120 per ton of CO₂ equivalent of scope 1 emissions. These are emissions produced by sources directly owned by a company or over which it has control.

In an interview Cecil Morden, chief director of tax policy said: “South Africa will probably raise 8 billion to 30 billion rand a year from the proposed tax.”

“To soften the impact, a tax-free exemption threshold of 60 per cent will be set, with additional allowances for emissions intensive and trade exposed industries to invest in projects outside their normal operations to help reduce their carbon tax liabilities.” Mr Pravin Gordhan added. “An updated carbon tax policy paper will be published for further consultation by the end of March 2013.”

Many opinions have been expressed regarding the tax announcement. Some industry experts are of the opinion that the tax will hurt the economy, decrease our GDP and cause companies to lose competitiveness in their markets.

There are concerns that electricity prices will go up as the cost of the carbon tax will be transferred to the consumer, especially affecting the poor.

In return the Treasury has confirmed that the current additional electricity levy for carbon emissions will gradually be phased out as the carbon tax is phased in.

That said, as from April 1, 2013, CO₂ emissions tax for passenger vehicles will be raised from R75 to R90 for every gram of emissions per kilometer (gCO₂/km) above the 120 gCO₂/km level. For double cabs the proposed rate will increase from R100 to R125 for every gCO₂/km above the 175 gCO₂/km threshold.

We will also see an increase in the levy on plastic shopping bags, from 4c to 6c from April 1, and the environmental levy on incandescent light bulbs will increase from R3 to R4 a bulb.

On a more positive note, there are other parties who feel our economy needs this push to change the carbon-intensive nature of our economy. There is no other way to meet the reduction goals pledged during COP 18. Besides carbon trading schemes, carbon taxes are internationally considered to give the best incentive for investments in new and carbon friendly technologies.

With less than two years until companies have to start considering the impact of their emissions on operational costs, companies will need to start considering how they can implement reporting systems and start initiatives and projects to mitigate the effects of the pending carbon tax.

Some details of the carbon tax policy still need to be clarified; these include how the monitoring and reporting procedures will to be undertaken and by whom. We will have to wait for the first draft of the carbon tax policy to become publically available to fully understand how these procedures will be enforced.

One thing is clear; generating a verified carbon footprint will likely form a major part of the monitoring and reporting procedure. As global markets become more carbon aware, transparency of companies’ carbon emissions data will become increasingly more important. Gathering of the correct data to conduct an accurate carbon footprint can be a challenging and complex process. Many companies and organisations lack the specialists or specialist skills required to conduct these assessments. Companies may look to either outsource these skills through consultants or upskill their own employees. Regardless of the route they take, the necessity for Carbon Footprint Analysts will drive an increasing demand for this service.

If you have been thinking about a move into the green industry sector there seems to be no better time than right now! Even before the announcement of Carbon Tax, research was showing a growing market for Carbon Footprint Analysts, both nationally and abroad. Driven by the requirements of JSE SRI, Carbon Disclosure Project, Voluntary Compliance and Integrated Reporting, South Africa’s latest tax legislation will only add to the demand and necessity for skilled and qualified Carbon Footprint Analysts.


Those of us involved in the green industries would have come across the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) at some point. But what is its purpose and what is its aim? How does it influence behaviour worldwide and in South Africa? And will this movement lead to a higher demand for Carbon Footprint Analysts?

Since 2000, the Carbon Disclosure Project has, on behalf of its signatory investors, challenged the biggest multinational companies like Siemens, Nestle, L’Oreal and Unilever to disclose their emissions, environmental management strategies and possible risks and opportunities to create transparency around their respective carbon emissions and raise awareness around climate change.

Worldwide more than three thousand organizations disclose their carbon emissions annually, including companies based in South Africa. There are no national or international laws or regulations forcing companies to publish their environmental information. Companies reply to the CDP questionnaires due to increased pressure from investors and clients who are basing decisions on this information.

Submissions are scored on the information disclosed in the CDP responses. Therefore a high score suggests good internal data management practices. The disclosure score should be considered as an indication of the company’s transparency and accountability and not as a company’s performance on climate change management, absolute levels of emissions, emission reduction achievements, or carbon intensity. As stated by Lord Adair Turner, the Chairman of the UK Financial Services Authority, “The first step towards managing carbon emissions is to measure them because in business what gets measured gets managed. The Carbon Disclosure Project has played a crucial role in encouraging companies to take the first steps in that measurement and management path.”It must be noted that performance has started be measured in some cases and it seems that is the trend for future disclosure.

In South Africa, the CDP annually requests the top 100 companies listed on the JSE to respond to the CDP questionnaire. In 2012 the average response rate went down from 83% in 2011 to 78% in 2012, mainly due to a change of the top 100 JSE listed companies as opposed tocompanies deciding not to disclose to the CDP as some of the newcomers had no prior experience with the process.

It is important to note that the CDP is not the only driver in South Africa for carbon disclosure. In 2004 the Johannesburg Stock Exchange launched the JSE Social Responsibility Index (JSE SRI), which requires some form of climate change response.

Our experience has shown that there is a general lack of employees with the specialist skills required to calculate a carbon footprint. We are convinced that any medium to large company will require internal capacity in the near future to efficiently collect the high volume of data required and to calculate a carbon footprint as well as respond to the CDP with some measure of success.

Further to undertaking a Carbon Footprint for a company, some larger organisations require that their carbon emissions data be verified. Carbon footprints, which have been assured by an external third party, can improve the CDP score by as much as 13%.

To meet this growing demand Terra Firma Academy has created a 3-day face-to-face Carbon Footprint Analyst course to share our knowledge and expertise. Our experienced facilitators will give thorough lectures and practical examples of this complex process to ensure participants should be able to calculate a carbon footprint of a small to medium sized company after 3 days.

Tell us a little about yourself; what are your interests? Do you earn your living in the green Industry?

I am an investment analyst at an investment company that consult to R14 billion worth of pension fund and retirement fund assets. I have always been interested in environmental issues and have been reading up on sustainability, climate change and carbon finance. I have also attended a handful of courses, most of them online from international institutions (Coursera, University of Toronto), in my spare time.

Then during 2012 Regulation 28 of the Pension Funds Act was amended and now requires pension funds to incorporate Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) issues into their investment strategy and investment decision making process. My interest was no longer just followed in my spare time, but it was now part of my day job. I am now head of our CRISA committee that meet regularly and have to investigate how we can incorporate ESG issues for each of our clients. The regulations are still very vague and up to the Trustees to decide so our tasks include a lot of Trustee training to educate Trustees on jargon such as UNPRI, CRISA, King III, climate change, sustainability, corporate governance, etc.

Why did you choose to do this course? Did you have a clear idea about what you wanted to learn and gain from the course?

I have attended many other online courses before such as “Introduction to Sustainability” and “Introduction to Carbon finance”. I have found these courses to be very broad and theoretical and was looking for a more detailed and practical course. It is all good knowing what a carbon footprint is, but I wanted to be able to calculate it.

Did you enjoy the course? Did you find it easy to follow and relevant with what you were expecting to come away with?

I really enjoyed the course. The course had just enough theory balanced by enough practical calculations. I was a bit bored during my “Introduction to Carbon finance” course and wasn’t looking to discuss the intricacies of environmental law and policies again. I enjoyed the small class setup with all the attendees participating in discussions.

Was the Facilitator effective in explaining some of the more complex content? Did you enjoy the hands on practical edge of the course?

Dave was really good and gave really handy examples and tips from industry experience. I could tell he had done the work practically before and it wasn’t just a lecturer reading from a textbook.

Do you feel you can make use of the skills you have learnt during the course?

Yes, due to the practical nature of the course one should be able to do a smaller scale carbon footprint with ease. Obviously the larger scale carbon footprints would require some experience especially with data issues but the concepts should remain the same.

Now that you have completed the Carbon Footprint Analyst course do you feel confident that you could complete the carbon footprint and present the report for a small to medium size company?


Do you think this course assists students and their move into the green industry? Will it make a difference in their future career?

It will certainly equip students wanting to advance their green career with skills. Just doing the course won’t make the difference, applying it in the field will be the key.

Do you have any advice you would like to give any prospective students or people who may be interested in taking one of our courses?

This was one of the best courses I have ever attended. I could see there was a lot of effort and time spent on the study material. It was very well laid out and of excellent quality. The extra articles that we read and discussed were interesting as well as the most recent information available. There is nothing like working off dated information to make you feel you are studying a redundant subject. It was great to have the study material in hard copy and electronically. The facilitator was really good and always ready with practical examples. Although a huge amount of information was covered every day, you never felt left behind. I found the course really well constructed and certainly worth the time and money.

Do you have an opinion on the emerging green economy of our country and its potential for job growth?

There are a couple of indicators that support the increased importance of the green economy:

  1. The government’s National Development Plan lists a “low-carbon economy” as one of the 9 focus areas for the next couple of years until 2030. This shows the governments intent and that it would probably channel funds in various form to the green economy to grow green jobs and move to a ‘low-carbon’ economy.
  2. The recent change in Regulation 28 of the Pension Funds Act forces investors to incorporate ESG issues in their thinking. This is not optional anymore, but mandatory. Although still vague, this move already shows intent and in the next couple of years it is expected that the Regulation will become more detailed and buttoned down. It is thus imperative from an investor’s point of view to get involved now in order to be able to shape the future developments.
  3. Finance Minister, Pravin Gordhan, made it clear in his budget speech on 27 February 2013 that everything is still on track for the carbon tax to be introduced in South Africa on 1 January 2015. This tax will increase the tax liability of many corporates and should serve as a financial motivator for companies to support a green economy, start using alternative energy sources and in so doing create green jobs.
  4. China was the fastest growing economy over the past 10 years and is predicted to be the fastest growing economy over the next 10 year according to the IMF. A large portion of the CDM projects are situated in China as they have realised that their increasing energy demand might not be sustained with the current production. This is a huge investment into renewable energy and green projects by one of the largest economies in the world. China might just catch the US napping on the green issue and then the US will have to run to catch up, which might be very favourable for green job creation.

The increasing urgency to consider, protect and conserve the environment has produced a powerful and fast-growing Green workforce

The Green Industry has experienced some of the fastest growth compared to other industries in the last decade, as a result green jobs have been in increasingly high in demand. The global population now recognises that it is imperative to consider the environment and many recognise the value of working towards a fulfilling and meaningful goal by starting a green career. In light of this incredible growth and ever-growing demand for green-collar jobs, new university degree programmes have been introduced that equip students with the skills and knowledge needed for a wide variety of green careers. The University of Cape Town, the University of Stellenbosch and Wits University—to name just a few—all offer Master’s degrees in the field of Renewable Energy, Climate Change, Sustainable Development or Architecture with a specialisation in Sustainable and Energy Efficient Cities. However, what options are available for those who want to start a green career but have already received their tertiary education and qualifications?

Transitioning to the Green Industry mid or late career without starting over completely – it’s possible

Short courses are the best option for those who would like to transition to the green industry and who already have established careers or qualifications in another field. Short courses allow professionals to consolidate their existing skill-set and enable them to transition to a new career without starting over completely and accepting the drastic wage reduction of an entry-level position.

Stanley Schatt, author of the book ‘Paint Your Career Green – Get a Green Job without Starting Over’, provides valuable guidance to ease the transition for exactly this group of people. In his book, Schatt emphasises the value of certified courses that offer training in short timeframes. The book also provides a wealth of practical advice and guidance, including the importance of utilising various networking platforms and funding options—all of which make the transition to the green sector not only manageable but also profitable mid or late-career.

An article by The Guardian entitled ‘Change career by going green’ adds to this by explaining that as the demand and availability of “green-collar” jobs is growing, so more and more professionals from other sectors are looking to make the shift to a green career. The article reveals that more than one third of members of the Institute of Environment & Assessment (IEMA) transitioned into the environmental field from other unrelated sectors, including; engineering, construction, manufacturing and IT. The article elaborates on specific individuals’ stories and the way in which short courses helped them make the transition. It also provides additional guidelines for starting a green career.

Short courses, but long term benefits
Short courses provide practical and relevant training that can be applied straight away and that can add value in a variety of different roles—all in a fraction of the time of full-time, longer-term options. Short courses are also more affordable, condensed and easy to enrol in and complete. Completing short courses also helps build one’s C.V and can significantly shape and direct one’s career, this holds especially true for accredited courses with industry recognition such as SETA accredited courses or courses that provide participants with Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Points. Participants of short courses are able to develop specialised and cutting-edge skills and can

“up-skill” their qualifications by gaining new, relevant and innovative green skills or knowledge, thus allowing working people to grow, reinvent themselves and change their specialisations while still meeting the demands of their current job. In fact, by completing short courses, employees are able to mould their existing career into a greener one. As companies are required to become “greener” in order to comply with regulations, remain competitive or achieve improved efficiency, they are constantly required to restructure and improve themselves. As the company recognises the changes it needs to make, so too employees need to add to their skills and knowledge to adapt to the changes. This not only prevents stagnation in one’s job but it also allows employees to fill the growing gap of green skills at their company.

Short courses are a valuable tool to shift your career in a new direction

A recent participant of two Terra Firma Academy courses exemplifies exactly this kind of shift toward “greening” one’s existing career. Maanda, a graduate intern at Lafarge, recently completed both the Energy Efficiency Management and Carbon Footprint Analyst courses. Having studied Geology and Environmental technology, Maanda’s career aspirations—and his initial role at Lafarge—focused largely on the environmental aspects in mining. His role, despite being environmentally focused, was therefore not necessarily “green”. This all changed however after an incident in which Maanda identified a water problem at a company site. Rectifying the problem inspired Maanda to duplicate the results with wastage of other valuable company resources, namely energy. Consequently, Maanda enrolled in Terra Firma’s Energy Effieincy Management (EEM) course. Giving feedback on the course, Maanda explained that the practical skills and extensive knowledge gained on the course have enabled him to identify possible projects that could be that would increase cost savings, improve sales and have a positive effect on the environment.

Lafarge is an industry leader dealing in construction materials and therefore has a significant impact on the environment. Environmental considerations and compliance are therefore critical for the company’s future and competitive advantage. As a result, Maanda’s supervisor recognised the need to calculate and report on the company’s carbon footprint. Since no-one currently had the necessary skills to successfully fill this role, Maanda saw the opportunity to fill the gap and enrolled in Terra Firma’s Carbon Footprint Analyst course. Maanda explained that the course provided him with tangible skills that he can apply to calculate a carbon footprint, going forward Maanda will play a central and valuable role in helping Lafarge calculate, disclose and reduce its carbon footprint.

While Maanda, is just one example of an ambitious employee with the initiative to green his career with short courses, thousands have made taken this valuable step. In doing so, they demonstrate to their employers that they are driven, capable and model employees—thus ensuring their future is not only greener but also a lot brighter.


Medupi is a large coal power station located in the Limpopo Province near the town of Lephalale. The power-station will be powered by 6 x 800 Mega Watt (MW) steam-powered turbines to produce a maximum demand of 4,800MW of power. Massive coal-fired boilers will be used to provide steam for the turbines. The South African Government backed the project as they believe the plant is required to supply vital electricity to South Africa over the long-term. Many of the country’s power plants are at the end of their useful life and no new large-scale power stations have been built for almost two decades.

However, when looking at some of the statistics relating to Medupi one must question the South African Government’s decision to further increase the country’s reliance on coal for electricity generation.

Environmental Effects

Once Medupi is completed, the environmental damages will only start to be seen. Up to now only the costs and delays have been highlighted in the project. However to run the Medupi there are massive requirements for water and coal.


The power station will require huge amounts of water to generate the steam needed to power the 6 enormous turbines. Eskom has said that Medupi will require 14 billion litres of water if a flue gas desulphurisation plant (removes sulphur dioxide, which is good for air quality)However James Blignaut, an Environmental and Resource Economist Professor at University of Pretoria believes this figure will be around 21 billion litres per year.

The Crocodile West Water Supply System, which combined with the Mokolo Dam yield, would be unable to supply the demand for water in Limpopo by the end of 2012. One must ask the question where an additional 14 – 21 billion litres of water is going to come from to supply Medupi. An average petrol truck can hold 30 000 litres of water, this would equate to around 700 000 trucks per annum.

Carbon Emissions

South Africa falls within the top 10 worst carbon dioxide emitters in the world (around 500 million tonnes of CO2e per annum). This is largely because of two companies, Eskom and Sasol who make up around 310 million tonnes of CO2e or two-thirds of the countries emissions.

It is estimated that a coal power station requires around 8.3 tonnes of coal per day per MW. Medupi will operate 365 days per year for its 4,800MW maximum capacity. This equation is shown below:

8.3 x 4 800 x 365 = 14 600 000 tonnes of coal per annum

To calculate the emissions associated to this coal we will use the IPCC 2006 data base which estimates 1 kilogram of coal with a calorific or energy content of 24 MJ/Kg and a carbon content of 25.8 carbon per kg of coal. The emission factor based on these inputs is 1 tonne of coal = 2.27 tCO2e.

14 600 000 x 2.27 = 33 142 000 tCO2e

This one project will increase South Africa’s emissions by 6.6%. This roughly equates to the same carbon emissions that 7 million cars would emit for one year.


Project Costs

The project has seen several delays and the estimated completion is expected to be by the middle of 2014. Regardless of the reasons why there were the delays, the total costs of Medupi are expected to be more than R150bn which is 200% above the original budget. This makes Medupi the most expensive coal powered station in the world, working out to around R32 per Watt installed. It should be noted that the most expensive solar panels available cost around R26 per Watt installed. This is clean, free energy after the panels are installed.

It is likely that the added costs of Medupi will be passed onto the consumer in electricity bills. One should raise the question why this money has not been invested into clean energy projects in South Africa or to subsidise off grid renewable energy projects.

Indirect costs from delays

This cost does not take into account the fact that the national grid capacity sits below 1% during winter months. The total indirect cost of the delays to Medupi are estimated to be R1.4 trillion from opportunity costs of lost and delayed growth, capacity restrictions and jobs due to the constrained grid.

Coal costs

From the above we know that Medupi will use around 14.6 million tonnes of coal per annum. One must remember that companies export South Africa’s good coal and Eskom essentially receive the ‘left overs’. This means that more coal is needed to be burnt to provide the same amount of energy from good coal. The 14.6 million tonnes of coal is thus an estimate, the figure could be higher. The current price Eskom will pay for coal will be between R300 and R400 for a short-term contractor, while long-term contractors agree to around R150 per tonne of coal. The costs of coal per annum  are estimated between R2.19 and R5.84 billion depending on the negotiating skills of Eskom’s procurement department.

Carbon Tax

South African will introduce a carbon tax from the 1st January 2015. The tax has the following features:

  • The tax rate will be R120 per tonne of carbon dioxide rising 10% per year
  • The tax will only apply to Scope 1 direct on site emissions
  • There will be an automatic allowance of 60% across all industries

What will Medupi’s carbon tax liability add up to?

33 142 000 tCO2e x R120 x 40% = R1 590 000 000

Medupi essentially will be taxed R1.6 billion for its first year of operation in 2015. The question begs to be answered then, will Eskom pass this tax onto the consumer?


With the above information, should South Africa stick to its current energy profile where over 90% of the grid make up is coal based? Many of the country’s power stations are at the end of their useful life. What energy should be used to replace coal? Renewable energy? Nuclear? Imported hydro? These are the questions which the Government will need to answer as South Africa continues its monopolistic approach to energy. One thing is for sure, electricity prices will continue to rise above inflation levels if you are on the national grid.